# Round the given numbers to the nearest multiple of 10 in python

Using a computer in order to do rather complex Math is one of the reasons this machine was originally developed. As long as integer numbers and additions, subtractions, and multiplications are exclusively involved in the calculations, everything is fine. As soon as floating point numbers or fractions, as well as divisions, come into play it enormously complicates the whole matter. As a regular user, we are not fully aware of these issues that happen behind the scenes and may end up with rather surprising, and possibly inaccurate results for our calculations.

## Round a number to nearest multiple

As developers, we have to ensure that appropriate measures are taken into account in order to instruct the computer to work in the right way. In our daily life we use the decimal system that is based on the number The computer uses the binary system, which is base 2, and internally it stores and processes the values as a sequence of 1s and 0s.

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The values we work with have to be constantly transformed between the two representations. As explained in Python's documentation :. A consequence is that, in general, the decimal floating-point numbers you enter are only approximated by the binary floating-point numbers actually stored in the machine. Listing 2 shows a similar case for formatting a floating point number for 17 decimal places. As you may have learned from the examples above, dealing with floating point numbers is a bit tricky, and requires additional measures in order to achieve the correct result, and to minimize computing errors.

Rounding the value can solve at least some of the problems. One possibility is the built-in round function for more details regarding its usage see below :. As an alternative, you can work with the math moduleor explicitly work with fractions stored as two values numerator and denominator instead of the rounded, rather inexact floating point values. In order to store the values like that the two Python modules decimal and fraction come into play see examples below.

But first, let us have a closer look at the term "rounding". Basically, it adds inaccuracy to a precisely calculated value by shortening it. In most cases this is done by removing digits after the decimal point, for example from 3. Such a reduction is done for several reasons - for example, saving space when storing the value, or simply for removing unused digits.

Furthermore, output devices such as analogue displays or clocks can show the computed value with only a limited precision, and require adjusted input data.

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In general, two rather simple rules are applied for rounding, you may remember them from school. The digits 0 to 4 lead to rounding down, and the numbers 5 to 9 lead to rounding up. The table below shows a selection of use cases. Mathematicians have developed a variety of different rounding methods in order to address the problem of rounding. This includes simple truncation, rounding up, rounding down, rounding half-up, rounding half-down, as well as rounding half away from zero and rounding half to even.

As an example, rounding half away from zero is applied by the European Commission on Economical and Financial Affairs when converting currencies to the Euro.

Several countries, such as Sweden, The Netherlands, New Zealand, and South Africa follow the rule named "cash rounding", "penny rounding", or "Swedish rounding". The amount payable for a cash transaction is rounded to the nearest multiple of the minimum currency unit available, whereas transactions paid in other ways are not rounded.

In South Africa, since cash rounding is done to the nearest 5 cents. In general, this kind of rounding does not apply to electronic non-cash payments. In contrast, rounding half to even is the default strategy for Python, Numpyand Pandasand is in use by the built-in round function that was already mentioned before. It belongs to the category of the round-to-nearest methods, and is also known as convergent rounding, statistician's rounding, Dutch rounding, Gaussian rounding, odd—even rounding, and bankers' rounding.

This method is defined in IEEE and works in such a way, that "if the fractional part of x is 0. Although not fully perfect this strategy leads to appreciable results. Python comes with the built-in function round that is quite useful in our case.By using our site, you acknowledge that you have read and understand our Cookie PolicyPrivacy Policyand our Terms of Service.

Code Review Stack Exchange is a question and answer site for peer programmer code reviews. It only takes a minute to sign up. I'm doing some programming challenges over at CodeEval and came across a pretty straight forward simple one:.

Given numbers x and n, where n is a power of 2, print out the smallest multiple of n which is greater than or equal to x.

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Do not use division or modulo operator. So the input looks something like this: 13, 8 first number being x second number being n. My first instinct was to use a while loop and return the result of multiplying the number once the loop hits the correct result, so:. My question is, is it considered bad form to use float "inf" instead of a set number to multiply up to? The function is badly named, as it doesn't multiply the two arguments. The function lacks a docstring which describes what it does. It is therefore hard to check if it is implemented correctly. The first sentence of the problem description would make a good docstring replacing "print out" with "return". We can see that it is always an integer which has unlimited size in Python. Therefore it can never be equal to the special float 'inf' value, and the loop could as well have been written using while True: ….

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Iterate directly over data instead of using readlines. Hint: What does the binary representation of powers of two look like? As someone hinted before, the 'n' is limited to powers of 2. I'm no python expert, but I assume python ints are 64 bit and that number will be big enough not to worry about overflow. And you certainly don't need floating point. Sign up to join this community.Using a computer in order to do rather complex Math is one of the reasons this machine was originally developed.

As long as integer numbers and additions, subtractions, and multiplications are exclusively involved in the calculations, everything is fine. As soon as floating point numbers or fractions, as well as divisions, come into play it enormously complicates the whole matter. As a regular user, we are not fully aware of these issues that happen behind the scenes and may end up with rather surprising, and possibly inaccurate results for our calculations.

As developers, we have to ensure that appropriate measures are taken into account in order to instruct the computer to work in the right way. In our daily life we use the decimal system that is based on the number The computer uses the binary system, which is base 2, and internally it stores and processes the values as a sequence of 1s and 0s.

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The values we work with have to be constantly transformed between the two representations. As explained in Python's documentation :. A consequence is that, in general, the decimal floating-point numbers you enter are only approximated by the binary floating-point numbers actually stored in the machine. Listing 2 shows a similar case for formatting a floating point number for 17 decimal places. As you may have learned from the examples above, dealing with floating point numbers is a bit tricky, and requires additional measures in order to achieve the correct result, and to minimize computing errors.

Rounding the value can solve at least some of the problems. One possibility is the built-in round function for more details regarding its usage see below :. As an alternative, you can work with the math moduleor explicitly work with fractions stored as two values numerator and denominator instead of the rounded, rather inexact floating point values.

In order to store the values like that the two Python modules decimal and fraction come into play see examples below. But first, let us have a closer look at the term "rounding". Basically, it adds inaccuracy to a precisely calculated value by shortening it. In most cases this is done by removing digits after the decimal point, for example from 3. Such a reduction is done for several reasons - for example, saving space when storing the value, or simply for removing unused digits.

Furthermore, output devices such as analogue displays or clocks can show the computed value with only a limited precision, and require adjusted input data. In general, two rather simple rules are applied for rounding, you may remember them from school. The digits 0 to 4 lead to rounding down, and the numbers 5 to 9 lead to rounding up. The table below shows a selection of use cases. Mathematicians have developed a variety of different rounding methods in order to address the problem of rounding.

This includes simple truncation, rounding up, rounding down, rounding half-up, rounding half-down, as well as rounding half away from zero and rounding half to even. As an example, rounding half away from zero is applied by the European Commission on Economical and Financial Affairs when converting currencies to the Euro.

Several countries, such as Sweden, The Netherlands, New Zealand, and South Africa follow the rule named "cash rounding", "penny rounding", or "Swedish rounding". The amount payable for a cash transaction is rounded to the nearest multiple of the minimum currency unit available, whereas transactions paid in other ways are not rounded.

In South Africa, since cash rounding is done to the nearest 5 cents. In general, this kind of rounding does not apply to electronic non-cash payments.If you like GeeksforGeeks and would like to contribute, you can also write an article using contribute. See your article appearing on the GeeksforGeeks main page and help other Geeks. Please Improve this article if you find anything incorrect by clicking on the "Improve Article" button below. Writing code in comment? Please use ide.

## Round the given number to nearest multiple of 10 | Set-2

Print all the duplicates in the input string Remove characters from the first string which are present in the second string A Program to check if strings are rotations of each other or not Print reverse of a string using recursion Reverse a string without affecting special characters Remove duplicates from a given string Pangram Checking Missing characters to make a string Pangram Check if a string is Pangrammatic Lipogram Removing punctuations from a given string Rearrange characters in a string such that no two adjacent are same Program to check if input is an integer or a string Quick way to check if all the characters of a string are same Program to find the initials of a name.

Given a positive integer n, round it to nearest whole number having zero as last digit.

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Python3 code to round the given. Smaller multiple. Larger multiple. Return of closest of two. WriteLine round n. Write an Efficient Method to Check if a Number is Multiple of 3 Reduce the number to minimum multiple of 4 after removing the digits Nearest element with at-least one common prime factor Replace all consonants with nearest vowels in a string.

Sagar Shukla. Check out this Author's contributed articles. Load Comments.Round function in Python: Definition The round is an in-built function in Python that is used for rounding off a number and returns a floating-point number. If the number of digits up to which it is to be rounded off is given else returns the nearest integer value if no such number is mentioned.

Here, the number specifies the number that has to be rounded off. The other argument digits are optional, that is used to mention the number of digits up to which the number needs to be rounded. If this argument is not provided, the number is rounded off to the nearest integer value.

The result will be 11 as no other parameters are provided in the function. So as the number after the decimal point is greater than 5, If there was a number less than 5 after the decimal; The result will be The number is rounded off to two places after decimal as specified in the syntax.

But as the digit after. If a number has to be rounded up to an integer, and the digit parameter is not provided, the number will be rounded to the closest integer. The result will be 11, as no other parameter is provided. The result would have been the same if the digit parameter given is None.

### Python Number round() Method

The round function can be used for converting fraction to decimal. Let us consider the following example. The first result will be 0. The second result will be 0. Note: Here all the floats are rounded up to two places after the decimal point according to the digits parameter.

Register Login. Syntax The syntax of the round function is as follows: round number[digits] Parameters The parameters of the round function are: number -Specifies the number that has to be rounded off. Return Value The round function returns two types of values:.

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Recommended Posts:.By using our site, you acknowledge that you have read and understand our Cookie PolicyPrivacy Policyand our Terms of Service. Stack Overflow for Teams is a private, secure spot for you and your coworkers to find and share information. Is there a function in Python that allows me to round down to the nearest multiple of an integer? I conscientiously looked at SO and found nothing related to rounding down to a nearest base.

Please keep this in mind before you post links to related questions or flag as duplicate. I ended up doing the following when in the same situation, making use of the floor function.

In my case I was trying to round numbers down to nearest Could do a similar thing with ceil if you wanted to define a corresponding always-round-up function as well? How are we doing? Please help us improve Stack Overflow. Take our short survey. Learn more. Rounding down integers to nearest multiple Ask Question. Asked 7 years, 5 months ago. Active 1 year, 6 months ago. Viewed 24k times. If you found something to round up, why not using that and subtract one if the result and the original value are unequal?

I could have done it a million ways. I wanted a Python function to avoid littering my code with definitions, but I guess nothing to do this is included in Python and now I know. IG's answer looks pretty good though. Active Oldest Votes. Sign up or log in Sign up using Google. Sign up using Facebook.If you like GeeksforGeeks and would like to contribute, you can also write an article using contribute.

See your article appearing on the GeeksforGeeks main page and help other Geeks. Please Improve this article if you find anything incorrect by clicking on the "Improve Article" button below. Writing code in comment? Please use ide. Print all the duplicates in the input string Remove characters from the first string which are present in the second string A Program to check if strings are rotations of each other or not Print reverse of a string using recursion Reverse a string without affecting special characters Remove duplicates from a given string Pangram Checking Missing characters to make a string Pangram Check if a string is Pangrammatic Lipogram Removing punctuations from a given string Rearrange characters in a string such that no two adjacent are same Program to check if input is an integer or a string Quick way to check if all the characters of a string are same Program to find the initials of a name.

Number of K length subsequences with minimum sum. Given a positive integer n, round it to nearest whole number having zero as last digit. Python3 code to round the given.

Smaller multiple. Larger multiple. Return of closest of two. WriteLine round n. Reduce the number to minimum multiple of 4 after removing the digits Write an Efficient Method to Check if a Number is Multiple of 3 Replace all consonants with nearest vowels in a string Nearest element with at-least one common prime factor. Sagar Shukla. Check out this Author's contributed articles.